Biology and its branches

Biology – burst and eclectic field, composed of many branches and subdisciplines. However, despite the broad scope of biology, there are certain general and unifying concepts within it that govern all study and research, consolidating it into a single, coherent field. In general, biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the synthesis and creation of new species. It is also understood today that all organisms survive by consuming and transforming energy and by regulating their internal environment to maintain a stable and vital condition. Here are some of biology's major branches:

  • Agriculture – study of producing crops and raising livestock, with an emphasis on practical applications
  • Anatomy – study of form and function, in plants, animals, and other organisms, or specifically in humans
  • Biochemistry – study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level
  • Bioengineering – study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology
  • Biolinguistics – study of the biology and evolution of language
  • Biomechanics – often considered a branch of medicine, the study of the mechanics of living beings, with an emphasis on applied use through prosthetics or orthotics
  • Biomedical research – study of health and disease
  • Biophysics – study of biological processes through physics, by applying the theories and methods traditionally used in the physical sciences
  • Biotechnology – study of the manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification and synthetic biology
  • Botany – study of plants
  • Cell biology – study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell
  • Developmental biology – study of the processes through which an organism forms, from zygote to full structure
  • Ecology – study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the non-living elements of their environment
  • Entomology – study of insects
  • Epidemiology – a major component of public health research, studying factors affecting the health of populations
  • Ethology - the study of animal behaviour
  • Evolutionary biology – study of the origin and descent of species over time
  • Genetics – study of genes and heredity.
  • Hematology (also known as Haematology) – study of blood and blood-forming organs.
  • Marine biology (or Biological oceanography) – study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals, and other living beings
  • Microbiology – study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living organisms
  • Molecular biology – study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some cross over with biochemistry
  • Mycology – study of fungi
  • Neurobiology – study of the nervous system, including physiology anatomy and molecular biology
  • Paleontology – study of fossils and sometimes geographic evidence of prehistoric life
  • Pathology – study of diseases, and the causes, processes, nature, and development of disease
  • Physiology – study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of living organisms
  • Phytopathology – study of plant diseases (also called Plant Pathology)
  • Population biology – study of groups of conspecific organisms
  • Sociobiology – study of the biological bases of sociology
  • Structural biology – a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules
  • Systems biology - study of the integration and dependencies of various components within a biological system, with particular focus upon the role of metabolic pathways and cell-signaling strategies in physiology.
  • Toxicology - study of the effects of chemicals on living organisms
  • Zoology – study of animals, including classification, physiology, development, and behavior.